Early immunotherapy administration improves outcomes in patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-antibody encephalitis. As most patients with NMDAR-antibody encephalitis present to psychiatrists, the psychopathology of NMDAR-antibody encephalitis needs to be clearly defined to encourage accurate clinical identification and prompt treatment.
Adam Al-Diwani, Adam Handel, Leigh Townsend, Thomas Pollak, M Isabel Leite,Prof Paul J Harrison, Belinda R Lennox, David Okai, Sanjay G Manohar & Sarosh R Irani.
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Cannabis is the most commonly used drug of abuse by adolescents in the world. While the impact of adolescent cannabis use on the development of psychosis has been investigated in depth, little is known about the impact of cannabis use on mood and suicidality in young adulthood.
Gabriella Gobbi, Tobias Atkin, Tomasz Zytynski, et al.
Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere, including in and on the human body. The collection of microorganisms associated with a certain location is called a microbiota, with its collective genetic material referred to as the microbiome. The largest population of microorganisms on the human body resides in the gastrointestinal tract; thus, it is not surprising that the most investigated human microbiome is the human gut microbiome. On average, the gut hosts microbes from more than 60 genera and contains more cells than the human body. The human gut microbiome has been shown to influence many aspects of host health, including more recently the brain.
Thomaz F S Bastiaanssen, Caitlin S M Cowan, Marcus J Claesson, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan.
Preclinical studies point to a pivotal role of the orexin 1 (OX1) receptor in arousal and fear learning and therefore suggest the HCRTR1 gene as a prime candidate in panic disorder (PD) with/without agoraphobia (AG), PD/AG treatment response, and PD/AG-related intermediate phenotypes. Here, a multilevel approach was applied to test the non-synonymous HCRTR1 C/T Ile408Val gene variant (rs2271933) for association with PD/AG in two independent case-control samples (total n = 613 cases, 1839 healthy subjects), as an outcome predictor of a six-weeks exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in PD/AG patients (n = 189), as well as with respect to agoraphobic cognitions (ACQ) (n = 483 patients, n = 2382 healthy subjects), fMRI alerting network activation in healthy subjects (n = 94), and a behavioral avoidance task in PD/AG pre- and post-CBT (n = 271).
Michael G. Gottschalk, Jan Richter, Christiane Ziegler, Miriam A. Schiele, Julia Mann, Maximilian J. Geiger, Christoph Schartner, György A. Homola, Georg W. Alpers, Christian Büchel, Lydia Fehm, Thomas Fydrich, Alexander L. Gerlach, Andrew T. Gloster, Sylvia Helbig-Lang, Raffael Kalisch, Tilo Kircher, Thomas Lang, Tina B. Lonsdorf, Christiane A. Pané-Farré, Andreas Ströhle, Heike Weber, Peter Zwanzger, Volker Arolt, Marcel Romanos, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Alfons Hamm, Paul Pauli, Andreas Reif, Jürgen Deckert, Susanne Neufang, Michael Höfler & Katharina Domschke.
Long-term remission is an important treatment goal in schizophrenia. Cariprazine, a dopamine D₃/D₂ receptor and serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, is approved in the United States and Europe to treat adults with schizophrenia.
Correll C.U., Potkin S.G., Zhong Y., Harsányi J., Szatmári B., Earley W.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the treatment of choice for severe mental illness including treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Increases in volume of the hippocampus and amygdala following ECT have consistently been reported.
To investigate neuroplastic changes after ECT in specific hippocampal subfields and amygdala nuclei using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov – NCT02379767).
Gregor Gryglewski, Pia Baldinger-Melich, René Seiger, Godber Mathis Godbersen, Paul Michenthaler, Manfred Klöbl, Benjamin Spurny, Alexander Kautzky, Thomas Vanicek, Siegfried Kasper, Richard Frey and Rupert Lanzenberger.
The symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) are rapidly alleviated by administration of a single dose of the glutamatergic modulator ketamine. However, few studies have investigated the potential sustained neural effects of this agent beyond immediate infusion. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effect of a single ketamine infusion on the resting state default mode network (DMN) at 2 and 10 days after a single ketamine infusion in unmedicated subjects with MDD as well as healthy control subjects (HCs).
Evans JW, Szczepanik J, Brutsché N, Park LT, Nugent AC, Zarate CA Jr.
The negative allosteric modulators (NAMs: L-655,708 and MRK-016) of α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors are reported to show rapid-acting antidepressant effects in rodents. However, there are no reports comparing these NAMs and (R)‑ketamine, (R)-enantiomer of the rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine, in a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model.
Xiong Z, Zhang K, Ishima T, Ren Q, Chang L, Chen J, Hashimoto K.
Individuals with stress-related psychiatric disorders exhibit deficits in cognitive flexibility. We have shown that chronic intermittent cold stress induces deficits in reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility mediated in the orbitofrontal cortex, that was reversed by ketamine in male rats. Such effects have not been tested in females. In this study, we examined effects of chronic intermittent cold stress and ketamine on reversal learning in females.
Denisse Paredes; Jeri D Silva; David A Morilak.
A markedly reduced interest or pleasure in activities previously considered pleasurable is a main symptom in mood disorder and psychosis and is often present in other psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. This condition can be labeled as “anhedonia,” although in its most rigorous connotation the term refers to the lost capacity to feel pleasure that is one aspect of the complex phenomenon of processing and responding to reward. The responses to rewarding stimuli are relatively easy to study in rodents, and the experimental conditions that consistently and persistently impair these responses are used to model anhedonia. To this end, long-term exposure to environmental aversive conditions is primarily used, and the resulting deficits in reward responses are often accompanied by other deficits that are mainly reminiscent of clinical depressive symptoms.
Simona Scheggi; Maria Graziella De Montis; Carla Gambarana.
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