CINP would like to express the highest gratitude to former members with outstanding contribution in the field of psychopharmacology, who unfortunately have left us in the past years.
They showed us the societal usefulness and importance of basic neuropsychopharmacological expertise and were known all loyal supporters, who contributed to our scientific and educational programs over the years. May your memory be honored forever.
Alec Coppen, MD, DSc (1923-2019)
Dr Alec Coppen, who has died aged 96, was a psychiatrist who was among the first to investigate the link between the neurotransmitter serotonin and clinical depression as well as carrying out early studies about the role of folate and lithium in the treatment of mood disorders.
Dr Coppen was a pioneer of the scientific study of the effects of drugs on the brain and behaviour at a time when such research was often regarded with suspicion. In 1967 he proposed that antidepressants worked by increasing the amount of norepinephrine available in the central nervous system. However, his research then suggested that there were other neurotransmitters implicated in mood disorders, particularly serotonin. He proposed that giving tryptophan – an amino acid which is converted to serotonin in the brain – might help those who were already on antidepressants to get better faster than those who were treated with antidepressants alone. This theory became one of the most influential in psychopharmacology. He also went on to investigate the effects of taking antidepressants with folic acid in addition to the treatment regimen.
Dr Coppen also evaluated the merits of lithium, now widely used to treat bipolar disorder and recurring depressive illness. While several studies had indicated that lithium might protect patients from relapses, various august figures at the Institute of Psychiatry remained unconvinced. The results of Dr Coppen’s own controlled trial, published in 1971, confirmed the benefits of lithium therapy and he went on to champion its effectiveness in the treatment of both unipolar depression and bipolar depression and was one of the very first researchers to suggest that lithium was anti-suicidal, a property which has been confirmed in large scale studies.
From 1964 until his retirement in 1988 Dr Coppen was a consultant psychiatrist at West Park Hospital in Epsom, Surrey. He was a consultant for the World Health Organisation from 1970 and served as President of the International College of Neuropsychopharmacology from 1988 to 1990. Dr Coppen was a founding member of the British Association for Psychopharmacology (which he also served as President) and the first recipient of the BAP lifetime achievement award. He was made an honorary fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in 1995 and in 2000 he received the CINP Pioneer in Psychopharmacology Award.
He married, in 1952, Gunhild Andersson (she died in 2007); they had one son, Michael.
Dr Alec Coppen, born January 29 1923, died March 15 2019
Per Bech (1942-2018)
On May 9, 2018, Per Bech, a leading psychopharmacologist over four decades and an active contributing member of our International Network for the History of Neuropsychopharmacology, passed away. Born in Svendborg, Denmark, on January 12, 1942, at the time of his death, Bech was 76 years old, but still fully active as Professor of Clinical Psychiatry and Head of the Psychiatric Research Unit at the New Zealand Mental Health Center, University of Copenhagen.
During the 1980s pharmacotherapy with psychotropic drugs became the primary form of treatment for mental disorders and with the introduction of Third Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the America Psychiatric Association, in 1980, psychiatric patients were classified by diagnoses, accessible to “psychometrics” and treated with drugs developed by a methodology based on “psychometrics.” An active participant of this development, Bech broadened the scope of his research to study scales employed in a wide variety of mental disorders and in 1986 he presented his findings in a “Mini-compendium of rating scales for states of anxiety depression, mania, schizophrenia with corresponding DSM-III syndromes” written in collaboration with Marianne . Kastrup and Ole Rafaelsen. By the 1990s, Bech’s research embraced mental health, and not only its pathology; he was developing instruments suitable for measuring also the effects of treatment on enjoyment of life and adaptation to society, as reflected in his book, Rating Scales for Psychopathology, Health Status and Quality of Life, published in 1993.
Actively involved in clinical investigations with psychotropic drugs and psychometrics throughout the years, in 2008 Bech was appointed professor of applied clinical psychometrics at Copenhagen University. Four years later, in 2012 he published Clinical Psychometrics, a tour de force, in which he defined the field, outlined its development, summarized its progress between 1993 and 2012 and conceptualized his own contributions to it over four decades. The two major models for testing the measurement aspect of rating scales, Hotelling’s Principal Component Analysis for identifying the structure of items included in a scale, and Rasch’s and Mokken’s Item Response Theory models for examining the “scalability” of rating scales, are given special attention. Yet, at the heart of the monograph is Bech’s “pharmacopsychometric triangle” of which one of the angles “covers” measurements relevant to therapeutic (desired) effects, another angle covers measurements relevant to side or adverse (unwanted) effects and the third, measurements relevant to patients’ quality of life. The “psychometric triangle” is a conceptual construct for translating the therapeutic ratio of psychotropic drugs into measurable benefits of treatment in patients’ well-being, based on patients’ “subjective” experience.
Per Bech’s contributions were crowned in 2010 with the “pioneer award” of the International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP).
Ban TA In Celebration of Per Bech. inhn. org. Biographies (Eulogies). February 20, 2020
Arvid Carlsson, MD, PhD (1923-2018)
Arvid Carlsson was born in 1923 and grew up in Lund where he also studied medicine. His thesis, which he defended in 1951, was on calcium and bone tissue, but a brief stay at the laboratory of the legendary Bernard Brodie at NIH made him change his field of interest to that of brain neurotransmitters. In 1959, he became professor of pharmacology at the University of Gothenburg where he came to stay for the rest of his career. Among his many awards are the Nobel Prize, the Japan Prize, the Wolf Prize and the Jahre Prize. He was married to Ulla-Lisa, also MD, who throughout his career provided strong support for him in his work, and had five children.
When Carlsson entered the field of neuropsychopharmacology, the discipline was still in its very infancy. After long-standing reluctance, the concept of chemical transmission taking place in the brain had recently achieved acceptance, but virtually nothing was known with respect to the identity of the transmitters used for this purpose. When visiting Brodie’s laboratory, which also hosted future Nobel Laureate Julius Axelrod, Carlsson was asked to explore the possible influence of reserpine, known to exert antipsychotic activity, on the release of serotonin. He suggested that one should also examine the possible influence of reserpine on catecholamines, but as this was beyond the interest of Brodie, Carlsson decided to conduct these experiments when back in Sweden. To this end, he established close collaboration with histologist Nils-Åke Hillarp, later recognized for the invention of the Falck-Hillarp immunofluorescence technique by means of which brain monoaminergic neurons could be mapped.
by Elias Eriksson & Torgny H Svensson
Oldřich Vinař, MD, PhD (1925-2018)
Oldřich Vinař was born on 9. 12. 1925 in Brno, the Moravian Metropolis of the Czech Republic. He studied Faculty of Medicine Charles University in Prague and graduated in 1949. He was the only Czech member and correspondent of the ACNP (American College of Neuro-Psychopharmacology) and co-founder of the CINP.
Oldřich Vinař was one of the founders of the Czech Neuropsychopharmacological Society and the organizer of the oldest conference on this issue in the world, the Czech-Slovak Psychopharmacological Conferences in Jeseník Spa. The first one of these took place 6 months before the first CINP conference in the 1970. Oldřich Vinař contributed to the fact that the Czechoslovak school left an indelible mark in the field of the world’s psychopharmacology. He worked closely with the team of the Research Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry in Prague and this collaboration led to the clinical testing and introduction of original Czechoslovak psychotropic drugs. Oldřich Vinař established the system of continuous performance of controlled studies. With a considerable advance ahead of the development in the world, he understood that, together with the development of new drugs, it is necessary to compare their effects, and he created the original Czech scales that were used in the Czech Republic before these methods arrived from abroad.
Oldřich Vinař was a visionary, able to look ahead foretelling the evolution of psychiatry and he overtook the time with an array of his claims (e.g. the effect of smoking and gender differences on the effect of psychotropic drugs). His doctoral thesis (1991) was dedicated to the possibilities of predicting the effect of psychotropic drugs. The prediction was based not only on clinical signs but also on biological parameters including electroencephalography and concentration of catecholamine metabolites. How close was he to the current efforts for a personalized medicine!
Oldřich Vinař also belonged to those enlightened psychiatrists who tried to offer the colleagues from other disciplines and the laity an insight to the issue of mental disorders, showing them from a human and comprehensible point of view. With increasing age, he focused on philosophical themes that were always of his interest. The entire generation of Czech psychiatrists studied psychopharmacology from his textbooks “Psychopharmacs I and II”. The psychiatric community used to know Oldřich as a master of brilliant and often provocative discussions with an excellent memory. His professional attitudes and messages have never been forget.
Dear Oldřich, may your memory be honored forever.
Pamela Sklar, MD, PhD (1959-2017)
CINP mourns the passing on November 20, 2017 of Pamela Sklar, M.D., Ph.D., a member of the CINP Council. At the time of her passing, Dr. Sklar was Chair of the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences and professor of psychiatry, neuroscience, and genetic and genomic sciences at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (New York, USA). She was also chief of the Division of Psychiatric Genomics at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
Dr. Sklar was a pioneering psychiatric geneticist and a principal investigator of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. She was known for her pioneering contributions to large scale genetics initiatives that identified rare gene variants that had a relatively large effect on schizophrenia risk as well as some of the first replicable findings on the impact of numerous common gene variants that contribute to the risk for schizophrenia and mood disorders.
A polymath, Dr. Sklar completed her bachelor’s degree in classics and philosophy at St. John’s College in 1981. She then completed her M.D. and Ph.D. (Neuroscience) degrees in neuroscience at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. She completed her Ph.D. in the laboratory of Lasker Prize recipient, Solomon Snyder. She then completed psychiatry residency and post-doctoral research training at Columbia University. Her post-doctoral work was conducted in the laboratory of Nobel laureate, Richard Axel. While working at the Broad Institute, a joint Harvard-MIT initiative, she co-founded the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research. In 2011, she moved to the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
Dr. Sklar was the recipient of numerous honors and distinctions that included the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation Colvin Prize for Outstanding Achievement in Mood Disorders Research, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics, and election to the U.S. National Academy of Medicine.
Dr. Sklar is survived by her husband, Andrew Chess, MD, Professor of Genetics and Genomic Sciences; Cell, Developmental and Regenerative Biology; and Neuroscience, at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai; and their children, Michael Sklar Chess and Isabel Sklar Chess.
Dr. John Krystal, former president of CINP, wrote, “I was thrilled to see that Pamela had been elected to the CINP Council. She would have brought so much to our College, as she has to our field. I am deeply saddened by her passing. On behalf of CINP, I send our deepest condolences to her family, friends, and colleagues.”
Graham D Burrows, MD (1938-2016)
Graham Burrows, of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, unexpectedly passed away in January 2016 following an accident in his home.
The sudden death of Graham was a shock to all his many friends and colleagues in CINP. Graham was an enthusiastic supporter of our organisation for over 30 years and an active participant in our symposiums. Indeed he participated as a speaker in our congress in Vancouver in 2014 and had every intention to join us in Seoul this year.
Graham had a most distinguished academic and professional career, not only as a clinical researcher in mood disorders, pain and addictive behaviours, which resulted in over 700 international publications, but also in public life as chairman of the Mental Health Association of Australia. In this position he was particularly active in fighting stigma and educating the public in the treatment of mental disorders. He was also a member of the Ministerial Advisory Committee on mental health. For his distinguished contributions to medicine, Graham received one of the highest awards, the Order of Australia, in 1989, which was followed by Australian knighthoods (KSJ and KCSJ) a few years later.
However, despite all the honours bestowed on him over the years, Graham always maintained a down-to-earth sense of humour and a warm regard for his friends and colleagues. As departmental head he always supported and encouraged the success of his younger colleagues and researchers.
The CINP has lost a loyal supporter who contributed much to our scientific and educational programmes over the years. His friends and colleagues will miss him for his warmth, his enjoyment of life and for his many contributions to all that is best in our organisation. He will be deeply missed not only by his grieving family but also by his many friends in the CINP. May he rest in peace!
Dr. Leonard Cook (1924-2016)
One of the world’s leading psychopharmacologists passed away Saturday, January 30, 2016 at the age of 91.
He is recognized as the discoverer of several early drugs for psychiatric disorders and as a pioneer in the development of methods to identify and study drugs for treatment in psychiatry. Leonard is credited for his role in the establishment of the modern field of psychopharmacology.
Dr. Cook was born in Newark, NJ in 1924. He served as a celestial navigator in the Army Air Force during World War II. Leonard graduated from Rutgers University and then attended Yale Medical School where he earned his PhD in pharmacology in 1951. In 1952, Dr. Cook was recognized as the first pharmacologist in the United States to study and elucidate the pharmacological properties of chlorpromazine, which eventually became the “breakthrough” agent (Thorazine) for the therapy of schizophrenia. In recognition of these early and significant contributions in the field of neuropsychopharmacology, the Collegium International of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP) Society awarded him their coveted “Pioneer Award” in 2006. In the same year, the American Society of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET) presented him with their “Lifetime Achievement Award,” recognizing his early and continuous contributions to this field.
Dr. Cook’s initial research was carried out at Smith Kline &
French Laboratories in the early 1950’s, where his research team
In 1969, he became the Director of Pharmacology at Hoffmann La Roche
to lead their entire pharmacological research department, and focused on
the research of new drugs in the field of anxiety to follow their
initial agents of Librium and Valium. In 1982, Dr. Cook was elected
President of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP). He
was a founding member of this group in 1961 and was the first industrial
scientist to serve as President of this prestigious organization. Dr.
Cook also received ACNP’s prestigious “Paul Hoch Award.” In 1983, he
joined DuPont Merck to build and lead their research in the Central
Nervous System area for the pharmaceutical business, resulting in the
discovery of agents which entered clinical trials for the potential
treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. During his research career, Dr. Cook
also received numerous academic appointments, including adjunct
professor of pharmacology at the New Jersey School of Medicine and
Temple Medical School, and adjunct professor in psychiatry at the
University of Pennsylvania. He was also appointed Visiting Professor of
Pharmacology at Beijing Medical School, Shanghai School of Medicine and
Xian School of Medicine in China, and visiting professor at Moscow and
Leningrad Schools of Medicine.
Dr. Cook was predeceased by his beloved wife of 45 years, Rheva Cook and is survived by his loving children, Dr. Steven Cook (Linda), Dr. Michael Cook (Rae) and Dr. Sandra Cook Gruber (Thomas); two grandsons, Daniel Cook (Jingsi) and Peter Cook; brother, George Cook; and Len’s close and loving companion, Barbara Yalisove.
Jonathan O. Cole, MD (1925-2009)
Jonathan Cole had a remarkable impact on psychiatry and psychopharmacology which should be re-evaluated to clearly establish the enormous contribution he made to the field and the people who came into contact with him. He was born on 16 August 1925. He went to Harvard College and then onto Cornell University Medical School, graduating in 1947 and continued there in psychiatric residency at Payne Whitney Clinic from 1948 to 1951. After his residency he went into the U.S. Army.
In 1953 he took a position as a Professional Associate to the committee on Psychiatry at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. where he remained until 1956.
I have known Jonathan Cole for the past 50 years. We first met when I was a visiting scientist at the University of Michigan and he was making a follow-up site visit with two of his junior staff, Rees Jones and the late Jerry Klerman. They were visiting the Schizophrenia and Psychopharmacology Research project that Jon had played a major role in establishing. Some of the details can give some idea of his vision and breadth of scope. The Director was Ralph W. Gerard a famous neurophysiologist from the University of Chicago, and his deputy was an American psychiatrist. The investigators were drawn from the U.S. and the rest of the world – Japan, Sweden, Britain, Germany and one from Australia. It was a 5-year centre grant and during this period other investigators came in and some moved on. We did not cure schizophrenia but produced many findings that did influence the state of the art in its infancy and most certainly its progress. This one example illustrates his goal of seeding research sites and creating in them the ability to metastasize.
Subsequent to this experience I worked in other centres in the U.S. and found that Jon Cole, the travelling salesman for psychopharmacology, had already visited and left his mark or came shortly after and helped establish a new site.
His centre of operation was as Chief, Psychopharmacology Service Center at NIMH from 1956 to 1966 and from 1966 to 1967 as Chief, Psychopharmacology Research Branch, NIMH. He was in effect the head of a worldwide Marshall plan for psychopharmacology. There was another unique aspect to his operations. They were personal and hands on. He would identify a Dr X who had special skills in one or another relevant discipline and explore whether this individual was a potential investigator in the cause, then he and his colleagues would help that person or group get a start. His personal involvement in this mission was one of his great contributions to the success of the investigator and the success of the mission. To this task he not only brought exquisite clinical skills and understanding but a charm and jolly cheerfulness that was therapeutic for new investigators.
After he left NIMH he returned to Boston, to Boston State Hospital from 1967 to 1973 and then to McLean Hospital in Boston where he was active as a psychiatrist and an investigator and was productive in carrying out clinical research and coming up with new ideas. He contributed several hundred publications to the literature, including research papers, book chapters, and books. Letters to the editor was another way for him to present interesting observations based on his exquisite clinical acumen.
His continued contribution to the development of the field was his active involvement in the developmentand growth of the ACNP and he became its President in 1965–1966. He also dedicated his efforts to support the CINP and was secretary of the organization from 1966–1969 and was awarded the CINP, Pioneers in Psychopharmacology Award in 2002.
Over the past several years he was ill and for a while restricted in his mobility, but he still attended scientific meetings and would be active in discussions and suggesting new approaches to issues under discussion.
Dimitrije P. Milovanoviæ, MD, PhD (1928-2008)
Dimitrije P. Milovanoviæ, emeritus member of CINP, passed away on December 1, 2008 at age 80. Born on September 9, 1928, in the village of Donje Crnatovo (Zitorada municipality, Toplica district,) Serbia, he studied medicine at the University of Belgrade, graduating in 1953, and receiving his specialist certification in neuropsychiatry in 1960.
Milovaoviae’s textbook, Clinical Psychopharmacology, was first published (Gorenjski tisk, Ljubljana) in 1972. The book, now in its 5th edition, was to become the standard text in psychopharmacology in Serbia. In 1979, Milovanoviae was awarded the October Prize of the City of Belgrade for his book, Medical Ethics, now in its 4th edition. He served as President of the Association of Psychiatrists of Yugoslavia, and was the founding editor-in-chief from 1979 to 2004 of ENGRAMI, the journal of the Association. Miolvanoviae was elected a member of CINP in 1978, and became an emeritus member in 2005
In 1994, Milovaniae was elected a senior research fellow of the United Nations European and Development Center. He is considered by his peers, as expressed by Professor V. Varagic, the founder of psychopharmacology in Serbia.